Studiennachweise zu ProstaStark

Übergeordnete Studien zum Effekt pflanzlicher Prostatamittel

De Smet P.A.: Herbal remedies. N Engl J Med (2002) 19;347(25):2046-56. Review.

Dreikorn, K.: Phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Curr Urol Rep (2000) 1/2: 103-109.

Dreikorn K., Berges R., Pientka L., Jonas U.:[Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Current evidence-based evaluation] Urologe A. 2002 Sep;41(5):447-51. Review. German.

Leitlinien der Deutschen Urologen zur Therapie des benignen Prostatasyndroms (BPS) Urologe (A) (2003) 42:722-738.

Studiennachweise Brennesselwurzel

Safarinejad MR "Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study." J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(4):1-11

In einer sechsmonatigen randomisierten, plazebo-kontrollierten Doppelblind-Studie mit 558 BPH-Teilnehmern zeigte sich, dass in der Brennnesselgruppe 81 Prozent der Patienten von einer signifikanten Besserung ihrer Krankheitssymptome berichteten. In der Placebo-Gruppe dagegen nur 16 Prozent.

Im Verlauf besagter Studie sank der IPSS ((Internationaler Prostatasymptomescore), mit dem die Intensität der Symptome klassifiziert wird, in der Brennnesselgruppe von 19.8 auf 11.8. In der Placebo-Gruppe sank der IPSS nur um 1.5 Punkte. Das bedeutet, dass allein die Brennnessel die Symptome so weit verbessern konnte, dass es den Patienten fast so gut ging, dass sie überhaupt keine Behandlung mehr brauchten.

Azimi H, Khakshur AA, Aghdasi I, Fallah-Tafti M, Abdollahi M.: A review of animal and human studies for management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with natural products: perspective of new pharmacological agents.; Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2012 Jun;11(3):207-21.

According to the studies, some of the substantial effective constituents of the plants in treatment of BPH are oenothein B, icaritin, xanthohumol, diarylheptanoid, 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, emodin, fatty acids, atraric acid, n-butylbenzene-sulfonamide, curbicin, theaflavin-3,30-digallate, penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose, lycopene, sinalbin, β-sitosterol, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, genistein, apigenin, baicalein, and daidzein. Besides, Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Curcubita pepo, and Urtica dioica as the most prevalent plants used to treat BPH. S. repens in human studies showed equivalent effectiveness to tamsulosin and in combination to U. dioica revealed equal effects to finastride with less side effects.

Schneider T, Rübben H.: Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months; Urologe A. 2004 Mar;43(3):302-6.

Phytotherapy of BPS has a long tradition in Germany; nevertheless, data referring to single phytotherapeutic agents are rare. We therefore performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study for 1 year with Bazoton uno (459 mg dry extract of stinging nettle roots) with 246 patients. The IPSS decreased on average from 18.7+/-0.3 to 13.0+/-0.5 with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo (18.5+/-0.3 to 13.8+/-0.5; p=0.0233). The median Q(max) increased by 3.0+/-0.4 ml/s in comparison to 2.9+/-0.4 ml/s (placebo), thus not statistically significantly different, as well as the median volume of residual urine, which changed from 35.5+/-3.4 ml before therapy to 20.0+/-2.8 ml and from 40.0+/-4.0 ml to 21.0+/-2.9 ml under placebo application. The number of adverse events (29/38) as well as urinary infections etc. (3/10 events) was smaller under Bazoton uno therapy compared to placebo. Treatment with Bazoton uno can therefore be considered a safe therapeutic option for BPS, especially for reducing irritative symptoms and BPS-associated complications due to the postulated antiphlogistic and antiproliferative effects of the stinging nettle extract. A strong increase of Q(max) or reduction of residual urine are not to be expected.

Ghorbanibirgani A, Khalili A, Zamani L.: The efficacy of stinging nettle (urtica dioica) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized double-blind study in 100 patients. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013 Jan;15(1):9-10. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.2386. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Konrad L, Müller HH, Lenz C et al., "Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract", Planta Med, Februar 2000, (Antiproliferativer Effekt auf menschliche Prostatakrebszellen durch Brennnesselwurzelextrakt)

Fazit: Brennnesselwurzelextrakt hemmt bei Prostatakrebs das Krebszellwachstum.

Studiennachweis zu Lignanen

Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Thomas J. Polascik, Stephen L. George, Boyd R. Switzer, John F. Madden, Mack T. Ruffin, IV, Denise C. Snyder, Kouros Owzar, Vera Hars, David M. Albala, Philip J. Walther, Cary N. Robertson, Judd W. Moul, Barbara K. Dunn, Dean Brenner, Lori Minasian, Philip Stella, and Robin T. Vollmer: Flaxseed Supplementation (not Dietary Fat Restriction) Reduces Prostate Cancer Proliferation Rates in Men Presurgery; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1, 2009.

The researchers noted that dietary flax supplementation has consistently resulted in reduced cancer cell proliferation assessed by the Ki‐67 biomarker, whether cell proliferation was studied in humans2‐4 or mice5‐7 or measured in prostate tissue.

Azrad M, Vollmer RT, Madden J, Dewhirst M, Polascik TJ, Snyder DC, Ruffin MT, Moul JW, Brenner DE, Demark-Wahnefried W.: Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer. J Med Food. 2013 Apr;16(4):357-60. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.0159.

Enterolactone and enterodiol, mammalian lignans derived from dietary sources such as flaxseed, sesame seeds, kale, broccoli, and apricots, may impede tumor proliferation by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We examined the associations between urinary enterolactone and enterodiol with prostatic tumor expression of NFκB, VEGF, and Ki67 among 147 patients with prostate cancer who participated in a presurgical trial of flaxseed supplementation (30 g/day) for ~30 days. Urinary enterolignans and tissue biomarkers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry, respectively. After supplementation, we observed significant correlations between intakes of plant lignan and urinary concentrations of total enterolignans (ρ=0.677, P<.0001), enterolactone (ρ=0.676, P<.0001), and enterodiol (ρ=0.628, P<.0001). Importantly, we observed that total urinary enterolignans and enterolactone were significantly and inversely correlated with Ki67 in the tumor tissue (ρ=-0.217, P=.011, and ρ=-0.230, P=.007, respectively), and a near-significant inverse association was observed for enterodiol (ρ=-0.159, P=.064). An inverse association was observed between enterolactone and VEGF (ρ=-0.143, P=.141), although this did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe an association between enterolignans and NFκB. In conclusion, flaxseed-derived enterolignans may hinder cancer cell proliferation via VEGF-associated pathways.

Lin X, Gingrich JR, Bao W, et al: Effect of flaxseed supplementation on prostatic carcinoma in transgenic mice. Urology 60:919-924, 2002.

Preclinical data indicate that flaxseed inhibits the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer cells.

Studiennachweise zu Kürbiskernextrakte (enthält Beta-Sistosterin)

Die Kommission E, die im Auftrag des Berliner Bundesinstitutes für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte die wissenschaftlich nachgewiesenen Wirkungen von Heilpflanzen untersucht, empfiehlt Kürbiskerne und Kürbiskernöl zur Vorbeugung und Behandlung der BPH.

Bach, D.: Placebokontrollierte Langzeittherapiestudie mit Kürbissamenextrakt bei BPH-bedingten Miktionsbeschwerden. Urologe B (2000) 40:437-443.

Eine randomisierte placebokontrollierte multizentrische Studie mit 476 Patienten hat in einem Studienzeitraum von 12 Monaten eine signifikant größere IPSS-Reduktion als im Placeboarm angezeigt.

G.R.A.N.U.: German Research Activities on Natural Urologicals, mit 1.430 Patienten im Alter von über 50 Jahren.

Fazit: Die Behandlung mit einem Kürbissamenextrakt lindert bei Patienten mit benigner Prostatahyperplasie (gutartiger Prostatavergrösserung) die charakteristischen Beschwerden beim Wasserlassen – vor allem ständigen Harndrang und Nykturie (vermehrtes, nächtliches Harnlassen). Kürbissamen verbessern die im IPSS-Gesamtscore erfasste Lebensqualität. Zu diesem Ergebnis kam die Placebo-kontrollierte G.R.A.N.U.-Studie.

Berges, R., Windeler, J., Trampisch, H. et al. :Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Lancet (1995) 345:1529-1532.

A review of the literature, published in 1999, found a total of four randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on beta-sitosterol for BPH, enrolling a total of 519 men. All but one of these studies found significant benefits in both perceived symptoms and objective measurements, such as urine flow rate. The largest trial followed 200 men with BPH for a period of 6 months. After the study was completed, many of the participants were followed for an additional year, during which the benefits continued. Similar results were seen in a 6-month, double-blind trial of 177 individuals with BPH.

Zitierte Studien

Studiennachweise zu Roggenpollen-Extrakt

Buck AC, Cox R, Rees RWM, et al. Treatment of outflow tract obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia with the pollen extract, Cernilton: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Urol. 1990;66:398-404.

Fifty-seven men with prostate enlargement were enrolled in the double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with 31 taking 92 mg of the grass pollen extract daily for 6 months and the remaining 26 taking placebo. Statistically significant improvements in nighttime frequency of urination and emptying of the bladder were found with use of grass pollen extract. Additionally, 69% of the participants receiving treatment reported overall improvement, while only 29% of the group taking the placebo felt they had improved, another statistically significant difference.

An important finding in this study was that the prostates of the men taking grass pollen significantly decreased in size according to ultrasound measurements taken.

MacDonald R, Ishani A, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Review A systematic review of Cernilton for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2000 May; 85(7):836-41.

und

Wilt TJ1, Macdonald R, Ishani A, Rutks I, Stark G. Cernilton for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 May 11;(5):CD001042.

Zur Anwendung des Roggenpollenextraktes Cernilton bei der Prostatahyperplasie liegen mehrere Übersichtsarbeiten und Placebo-kontrollierte Studien vor. Wesentliches Ergebnis ist eine Besserung subjektiver Beschwerden und eine Abnahme der Häufigkeit nächtlichen Wasserlassens nach einer Behandlungsdauer von 12 bis 24 Wochen.

Li NC, Wu SL, Jin J, et al.: Comparison of different drugs on the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.; Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007 Jul 15;45(14):947-50.

und

Xu J1, Qian WQ, Song JD.: A comparative study on different doses of cernilton for preventing the clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia.; Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008 Jun;14(6):533-7.

Die Studien bestätigen eine Zunahme der Lebensqualität und eine Rückbildung der krankheitsspezifischen Beschwerden innerhalb von 3 bis 6 Monaten unter einer ausreichend hohen Dosierung eines Roggenpollenextraktes.

Aoki A, Naito K, Hashimoto O, et al..: Clinical evaluation of the effect of tamsulosin hydrochloride and cernitin pollen extract on urinary disturbance associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia in a multicentered study.; Hinyokika Kiyo. 2002 May;48(5):259-67.

Erste Untersuchungen deuten zudem darauf hin, dass die Wirksamkeit der Standardtherapie (Alphablocker Tamsulosin) durch die gleichzeitige Behandlung mit Roggenpollenextrakt verbessert werden könnte.

Studiennachweise zu Isofalvonen

Legg, R. et al., 2008. Diets high in selenium and isoflavones decrease androgen-regulated gene expression in healthy rat dorsolateral prostate. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 6(1), 57.

High dietary intake of selenium or soybean isoflavones reduces prostate cancer risk. These components each affect androgen-regulated gene expression. The objective of this work was to determine the combined effects of selenium and isoflavones on androgen-regulated gene expression in rat prostate.

Sarkar, F.H. & Li, Y., 2003. Soy isoflavones and cancer prevention. Cancer Investigation, 21(5), 744-57.

Epidemiological studies have shown a significant difference in cancer incidence among different ethnic groups, which is believed to be partly attributed to dietary habits. The incidences of breast and prostate cancers are much higher in the United States and European countries compared with Asian countries such as Japan and China. One of the major differences in diet between these populations is that the Japanese and the Chinese consume a traditional diet high in soy products. Soy isoflavones have been identified as dietary components having an important role in reducing the incidence of breast and prostate cancers. Genistein, the predominant isoflavones found in soy, has been shown to inhibit the carcinogenesis in animal models. There are growing body of experimental evidence that show the inhibition of human cancer cells by genistein through the modulation of genes that are related to the control of cell cycle and apoptosis. Moreover, it has been shown that genistein inhibits the activation of NF-kappa B and Akt signaling pathways, both of which are known to maintain a homeostatic balance between cell survival and apoptosis. Genistein is commonly known as phytoestrogen, which targets estrogen- and androgen-mediated signaling pathways in the processes of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, genistein has been found to have antioxidant property, and shown to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and metastasis. Taken together, both in vivo and in vitro studies have clearly shown that genistein, one of the major soy isoflavones, is a promising reagent for cancer chemoprevention and/or treatment. In this article, we attempt to provide evidence for these effects of genistein in a succinct manner to provide comprehensive state-of-the-art knowledge of the biological and molecular effects of the isoflavone genistein in cancer cells.

Miyanaga N, Akaza H, Hinotsu S, Fujioka T, Naito S, Namiki M, Takahashi S, Hirao Y, Horie S, et al. A prostate cancer chemoprevention study: An investigative randomized control study using purified isoflavones in men with rising PSA. Cancer Sci. 2011.

Our previous case–control study suggested that equol, a metabolite of isoflavone, has a preventive effect on prostate cancer. To examine the prostate cancer risk based on isoflavone intake and equol production, we carried out a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral isoflavone (60 mg/day) for 12 months. The inclusion criteria were Japanese men between 50 and 75 years of age, a serum prostate-specific antigen level of 2.5–10.0 ng/mL, and a single, negative prostate biopsy within 12 months prior to enrollment. The study included 158 men in eight Japanese centers. Their median age was 66.0 years, and the numbers of equol producers and non-producers were 76 (48%) and 82 (52%), respectively. The majority of adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, and the scheduled intake of tablets was completed by 153 patients (96.8%). The prostate-specific antigen value showed no significant difference before and after treatment. Of the 89 patients evaluated by central pathological review, the incidence of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in the isoflavone and placebo groups showed no significant difference (21.4%vs 34.0%, P = 0.140). However, for the 53 patients aged 65 years or more, the incidence of cancer in the isoflavone group was significantly lower than that in the placebo group (28.0%vs 57.1%, P = 0.031). These results support the value of isoflavone for prostate cancer risk reduction. A large-scale phase III randomized study of isoflavone tablets in men with different hereditary factors and living environments is warranted. Registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) for clinical trials in Japan (C000000446). (Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 125–130).

Perabo FG, Von Löw EC, Ellinger J, et al.: Soy isoflavone genistein in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 11 (1): 6-12, 2008.

Numerous studies have shown that prostate cancer incidence is very low in Asian countries, where diets tend to be high in soy isofalvones.

Studiennachweise zu Piperin (Pfefferextrakt)

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(8):735-48

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the most widely used among spices. It is valued for its distinct biting quality attributed to the alkaloid, piperine. Black pepper is used not only in human dietaries but also for a variety of other purposes such as medicinal, as a preservative, and in perfumery. Many physiological effects of black pepper, its extracts, or its major active principle, piperine, have been reported in recent decades. Dietary piperine, by favorably stimulating the digestive enzymes of pancreas, enhances the digestive capacity and significantly reduces the gastrointestinal food transit time. Piperine has been demonstrated in in vitro studies to protect against oxidative damage by inhibiting or quenching free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Black pepper or piperine treatment has also been evidenced to lower lipid peroxidation in vivo and beneficially influence cellular thiol status, antioxidant molecules and antioxidant enzymes in a number of experimental situations of oxidative stress. The most far-reaching attribute of piperine has been its inhibitory influence on enzymatic drug biotransforming reactions in the liver. It strongly inhibits hepatic and intestinal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase. Piperine has been documented to enhance the bioavailability of a number of therapeutic drugs as well as phytochemicals by this very property. Piperine's bioavailability enhancing property is also partly attributed to increased absorption as a result of its effect on the ultrastructure of intestinal brush border. Although initially there were a few controversial reports regarding its safety as a food additive, such evidence has been questionable, and later studies have established the safety of black pepper or its active principle, piperine, in several animal studies. Piperine, while it is non-genotoxic, has in fact been found to possess anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor influences.

Studiennachweise zu Lycopin

Schwarz S, Obermüller-Jevic UC, Hellmis E, Koch W, Jacobi G, Biesalski HK.: Lycopene Inhibits Disease Progression in patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia; Journal of Disease and Nutrition; J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53.

Lycopene is a promising nutritional component for chemoprevention of prostate cancer (PCa). A possibly beneficial role of lycopene in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), who are at increased risk of developing PCa, has been suggested, although clinical data are lacking. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of lycopene supplementation in elderly men diagnosed with BPH. A total of 40 patients with histologically proven BPH free of PCa were randomized to receive either lycopene at a dose of 15 mg/d or placebo for 6 mo. The effects of the intervention on carotenoid status, clinical diagnostic markers of prostate proliferation, and symptoms of the disease were assessed. The primary endpoint of the study was the inhibition or reduction of increased serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. The 6-mo lycopene supplementation decreased PSA levels in men (P < 0.05), whereas there was no change in the placebo group. The plasma lycopene concentration increased in the group taking lycopene (P < 0.0001) but other plasma carotenoids were not affected. Whereas progression of prostate enlargement occurred in the placebo group as assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography (P < 0.05) and digital rectal examination (P < 0.01), the prostate did not enlarge in the lycopene group. Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements. In conclusion, lycopene inhibited progression of BPH.

Soares Nda C, Teodoro AJ, Oliveira FL, Santos CA, Takiya CM, Junior OS, Bianco M, Junior AP, Nasciutti LE, Ferreira LB, Gimba ER, Borojevic R.: Influence of lycopene on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human prostate cancer and benign hyperplastic cells.; Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(7):1076-85.

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men of the Western world. Lycopene has received attention because of its expcted potential to prevent cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of lycopene on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells and benign prostate hyperplastic cells. Using MTT assay, we observed a decrease of cell viability in all cancer cell lines after treatment with lycopene, which decreased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and increased in S and G2/M phases after 96 h of treatment in metastatic prostate cancer cell lineages. Flow citometry analysis of cell cycle revealed lycopene promoted cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase after 48 and 96 h of treatment in a primary cancer cell line. Using real time PCR assay, lycopene also induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells with altered gene expression of Bax and Bcl-2. These results suggest an effect of lycopene on activity of human prostate cancer cells.

Studiennachweise zu Zink

Über 500 Studien (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=prostate%20cancer%20zinc) beschäftigen sich mit dieser Kombination.

Der Trend ist dabei klar: je geringer der Zink – Spiegel, desto höher Risiko wie Mortalität am Prostata-Krebs.

Epstein MM, Kasperzyk JL, Andrén O, Giovannucci EL, Wolk A, Håkansson N, Andersson SO, Johansson JE, Fall K, Mucci LA.: Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar;93(3):586-93.

With a median follow-up of 6.4 y, 218 (42%) men died of prostate cancer and 257 (49%) died of other causes. High dietary zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR(Q4 vs Q1): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94; P for trend = 0.05) in the study population. The association was stronger in men with localized tumors (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.66; P for trend = 0.005). Zinc intake was not associated with mortality from other causes.

These results suggest that high dietary intake of zinc is associated with lower prostate cancer-specific mortality after diagnosis, particularly in men with localized disease.

Banudevi S, Elumalai P, Sharmila G, Arunkumar R, Senthilkumar K, Arunakaran J.: Protective effect of zinc on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and testosterone-induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral prostate of Sprague Dawley rats.; Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011 Sep;236(9):1012-21

Bei Ratten konnte Zink einen Prostata-Krebs, der durch Testosteron oder Hydroxyharnstoff induziert wurden ist, zur Rückbildung bringen.

Studiennachweise zu Selen

Combs, G.F., 2004. Status of selenium in prostate cancer prevention. British Journal of Cancer, 91(2), 195-9.

The complete, 13 years, results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial have been analysed, causing some speculation over the robustness of the previously reported findings of reduction of cancer risks by supplements of selenium (Se) to a cohort of older Americans. These analyses confirmed that Se supplementation was associated with marked reductions in risks to total (all-site except skin) carcinomas and to cancers of the prostate and colon-rectum. Of those deep-site treatment effects, the most robust was for prostate cancer, which was more frequent, and was confirmed by serum prostate-specific antigen level. Recent subgroup analyses showed Se supplementation reduced risk of cancer mostly among subjects who entered the trial with plasma Se levels in the bottom tertile of the cohort. Other recent findings have demonstrated that Se treatment can promote apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and, possibly, impair their proliferation through antiangiogenic effects. Thus, a body of basic understanding is developing by which one can understand and evaluate the results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer and future clinical trials. This understanding also requires inclusion of the mechanisms of Se transport and cellular uptake, so that appropriate inferences can be made from findings from cell culture systems, which tended to use effective Se doses much larger than relevant to cells in vivo. Also needed is information on the chemical speciation of Se in foods, so that Se delivery can be achieved in ways that are effective in reducing cancer risk and is also safe, accessible and sustainable.

Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate E, Natarajan N, Turnbull B, Jacobs E, Combs GF Jr, Alberts DS, Clark LC, Marshall JR.PC-Studie (Nutritional Prevention of Cancer); Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):155-63.

Das Risiko, Prostatakrebs zu entwickeln, war bei (oraler) Einnahme von 200 µg Selen pro Tag um 52 Prozent gesunken.